Obesity is the accumulation of too much fat in the body. Except for those who have muscle mass, all those who have a body weight in excess of 20% of the standard weight that are appropriate for height are considered obese.
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Cause of obesity
To this day, the real cause of obesity remains unknown. There are studies that suggest that the disease is genetic, or that changes in the gene, but all is only hypothetical. However, the mechanism of obesity is quite simple: it is the imbalance between intake and the real needs of the body. There are at least seven factors that cause obesity, which interact with one another to cause illness:
Recent studies on the twins, triplets, or fathers of some families indicate that genetics is a very important factor in obesity. Participation in the genetic part of the disease corresponds to multiple genes, which means that multiple genes are involved.
These are particularly important factors causing the disease, especially in women. In developed societies, as in Western societies, obesity is more prevalent in manual labor and has a lower economic life than in women who have mental work and have economic life at high level. At first, it sounded like a paradox, but it really was.
Endocrine and metabolic disorders:
Patients with endocrine and metabolic disorders: adrenal cortex, menopause, glucose metabolism disorders and lipid … will stimulate fat tissue. The formation of many adipose tissues in the body results in increased demand for sugars, which in turn increases the need for insulin. The increase in these two fatty acids stimulates adipose tissue formation and forms a coagulant loop. It is very difficult to treat.
In the past, and even now, psychological factors have also been assigned to a great deal of importance in causing obesity and we often assume that obese people are those with disorders. Psychological and emotional. However, in fact, people who are not obese also have psychological and emotional disorders. The psychological and emotional disorders of obese people today are often seen as the result of prejudices and stigma towards them rather than the cause of the disease. There are two psychiatric disorders that can cause obesity: overeating eating syndrome and nighttime syndrome, including morning anorexia, but eat a lot at night with insomnia Both are very important factors that cause confusion between intake of food and energy consumption during operation, fat accumulation and weight gain.
Growth factors of the body:
The increase in body mass in obesity may be due to an increase in the size of fat cells, called obesity or increase in the number of fat cells, also known as overweight or obesity. combine both. Obesity that occurs in adulthood is usually obesity and weight loss in these patients seems easier than with strict adherence to the intake and intake regulations. combined with physical training, and the use of some medications. At the same time, obesity that occurs in adolescence is usually obesity in the form of hyperplasia or a combination of both and trying to lose weight is very difficult, in many cases almost impossible. It is important to prevent childhood obesity at an early age. This contrasts with the fondness of the fattest kids that today’s parents want.
Significant reduction in physical activity in a well-developed and comfortable society today is a significant factor in obesity. In these people the energy balance will be more deviated from the demand and the pathway to obesity is very wide open. Even in the United States, although every person has tried to reduce the amount of calorie intake by 10%, the incidence of obesity doubles compared to the early years.
The lesions on the patient’s brain, especially in the hypothalamus, can be linked to obesity. Although this is a very rare cause.
Effects of obesity
Obesity can have the following consequences:
– Heart disease: The fat that surrounds the heart makes it difficult for the heart to contract. Fat also narrows coronary arteries, hindering blood supply to the heart, causing heart attacks.
– Dyslipidemia: Obesity increases triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels, which lowers HDL-cholesterol levels. Abdominal obesity is prone to dyslipidemia.
– Diabetes: Obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Obese women are 2.5 times more likely to have diabetes than people who are overweight.
– Stroke: People with BMI greater than 30 are more likely to die from cerebrovascular disease. If there are other risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia), stroke can occur in people with lower BMI (25.0-29.9).
– Decreased fertility: In obese patients, fatty tissue disrupts the ovary, the egg does not mature and ripens every month, poor egg quality, menstrual disorders. Too much fat will fill the ovaries and cause amenorrhea. Obesity also causes multiple cysts, difficult to fertilize, easy to miscarriage. It should be noted that when menopause, some women easily increase belly fat.
– Reduced respiratory function: fat in the diaphragm, hypopigmentation of the diaphragm, reduced ventilation, causing shortness of breath, causing the brain to lack oxygen, create Pickwick syndrome (sleep intermittently around the clock, sleep at the province ). Sleep apnea is also a common problem in obese people, especially when the belly is heavy and the neck is too large.
– Increased osteoarthritis: Joints with too much weight will be painful. Increased uric acid levels in people, causing gout. Several studies have confirmed that, when BMI increased, serum uric acid levels increased.
– Cancer: Men who are obese are more likely to develop colorectal cancer, and women are more likely to develop bile duct cancer, breast, uterus, and ovaries.
– Gastrointestinal disease: obese people are more likely to develop gallbladder disease, liver abnormalities, fatty liver, fatty intestine, decreased intestinal motility (bloating, constipation); Intestinal obstruction, hemorrhoids.
– For children, obesity also has a great impact. These children are more likely to become obese when they grow up; increased risk of coronary heart disease (coronary artery disease: double, atherosclerosis: 7 fold, cerebrovascular accident: 13 times).
Prevention of obesity
– Weight loss
+ Diet lowers carbohydrate: Cambridge diet: provides sufficient trace elements, reduced glucid, effective weight loss, no catastrophic.
+ Fasting to lose weight is dangerous. When hunger, fat and protid will be catabolized, lack of salt, lack of trace elements. Therefore, vulnerable organs.
– Split meals (at least 3 meals).
+ Add fiber, vitamins, trace elements from vegetables, roots and fruits.
+ Limit beer – alcohol.
+ Strengthen physical activity-exercise to increase energy use
+ Helps to lose weight, maintain the ideal weight.
– Reduce TC, TG, LDL-c and HDL-c.
+ Helps control blood sugar and blood pressure.
+ Exercise time is about 60 to 75 minutes per day, the intensity and duration depends on the health condition, especially those with blood pressure, coronary artery disease, heart failure.
+ Behavior modification
– Slimming drug
+ Sibutramine (meridia): suppresses the reabsorption of Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine into the nervous system, leading to an increase in their blood levels cause anorexia.
+ Orlistat (Xenical): Lipase inhibitors cause fat to not be absorbed in the digestive tract.
Note: Remember, never lose weight with diuretics, thyroid hormones, and lipid lowering medications.